Saturday, March 9, 2019

[Botany • 2019] Solanum medusae (Solanaceae) • A New Wolf-fruit from Brazil, and A Key to the Extra-Amazonian Brazilian Androceras/Crinitum Clade Species


Solanum medusae Gouvêa

in Gouvêa, Stehmann & Knapp, 2019. 

Abstract
Solanum medusae sp. nov. is described from the Cerrado biome in the Serra da Canastra region, southwestern Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The new species is morphologically similar to the common S. lycocarpum A.St.-Hil. (known as lobeira or wolf-fruit), but differs from it in habit and pubescence characters. We here describe this new taxon and discuss its morphology, some aspects of its ecology, affinities and distribution. Full specimen citations are provided, as well as illustrations, distribution map and a preliminary conservation assessment of the species. A key to all of the known extra-Amazonian Brazilian species of the Androceras/Crinitum clade is also provided to aid in their identification.

Keywords: Brazil, Cerrado, new species, wolf-fruit, identification key, prickly Solanum, Solanaceae

Figure 2. Solanum medusae.
A Habitat B Habit; note the distinctive decumbent posture C Roots; note the horizontal growth D Branch apex; note the deep purple coloration and leaf shape E Inflorescence; note that the first flower is always long-styled (upper left corner: a more developed inflorescence with an immature fruit being formed from its first flower, and short-styled flowers distally, some of which have already fallen) F Long-styled flower (upper right corner: detail of the slightly unequal anthers with stellate-pubescent connectives; bottom right corner: color difference between the purple post-anthesis corollas and the lilac senescent ones) G Fruit (upper left corner: half of a transversally dissected fruit; upper right corner: seed; bottom right corner: dissected embryo).
Photographs A, C–G by Y.F. Gouvêa B by Philipe S. Saviott.

Figure 3. Indumentum of Solanum medusae.
 A–C Variation in young stem indumentum (A: Y.F. Gouvêa 230; B: Y.F. Gouvêa 264; C: Y.F. Gouvêa 262, BHCB) D Adaxial leaf surface epidermis and indumentum E Detail of the simple glandular trichomes of the adaxial surface F Abaxial leaf surface epidermis and indumentum G Detail of the abaxial surface trichome types (D–G Y.F. Gouvêa 230, BHCB). Photographs by Y.F. Gouvêa.


Figure 1. Solanum medusae
A Habit B Flowering branch with an immature fruit C Detail of the adaxial leaf surface indumentum D Detail of the abaxial leaf surface indumentum E Trichome types from stems and leaves (Y.F. Gouvêa et al. 230, BHCB).
 Scale bars: 30 cm (A), 8 cm (B), 0.5 mm (C–E). Drawings by Iago F. Gouvêa.



Solanum medusae Gouvêa, sp. nov.

Diagnosis: Like Solanum lycocarpum A.St.-Hil., but differing in its decumbent habit and densely glandular pubescence of stems and leaves.



Etymology: The specific epithet is derived from the snake-like appearance of the prostrate branches and the overall appearance of the habit, resembling the hair of the monster Medusa of Greek mythology.

Distribution: (Figure 4). Solanum medusae is only known from the region of the Serra da Canastra in southwestern Minas Gerais state, Brazil. It has been collected from six municipalities located northeast (Campinópolis, Piumhi, São José do Barreiro and São Roque de Minas), north (São João Batista da Serra) and west (Sacramento) of the Serra da Canastra.

Ecology: Solanum medusae grows in open areas along roads, pastures and clearings in Cerrado, above 700 m elevation (Figure 2A). Populations have been found in areas originally dominated by Cerrado stricto sensu (lower areas), grasslands (higher areas) and seasonal semi-deciduous tropical forests (mountain slopes).



 Yuri Fernandes Gouvêa, João Renato Stehmann and Sandra Knapp. 2019. Solanum medusae (Solanaceae), A New Wolf-fruit from Brazil, and A Key to the Extra-Amazonian Brazilian Androceras/Crinitum Clade Species. PhytoKeys. 118: 15-32. DOI:  10.3897/phytokeys.118.31598


Resumo: Solanum medusae sp. nov. é descrita para o Cerrado da região da Serra da Canastra, sudoeste do estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil. A nova espécie é morfologicamente semelhante à comum S. lycocarpum A.St.-Hil. (conhecida como lobeira ou fruta-do-lobo), da qual pode ser diferenciada por características do hábito e do indumento. O presente trabalho descreve este novo táxon, discute sua morfologia, alguns aspectos da sua ecologia, suas afinidades e distribuição. Citações completas dos espécimes são fornecidas, assim como ilustrações, mapa de distribuição e uma avaliação preliminar do estado de conservação da espécie. Uma chave de identificação para todas as espécies conhecidas do clado Androceras/Crinitum ocorrentes no Brasil que possuem distribuição extra-amazônica também é fornecida.
Palavras-chave: Brasil, Cerrado, espécie nova, lobeira, chave de identificação, Solanum aculeado, Solanaceae

1 comment:

  1. DEWAPK^^ agen judi terpercaya, ayo segera bergabungan dengan kami
    dicoba keberuntungan kalian bersama kami dengan memenangkan uang jutaan rupiah
    ditunggu apa lagi segera buka link kami ya :) :) :* :*

    ReplyDelete