Sunday, March 4, 2018

[Herpetology • 2017] Twelve New Species of Cyrtodactylus Gray (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Isolated Limestone Habitats in east-central and southern Myanmar Demonstrate High Localized Diversity and Unprecedented Microendemism


Cyrtodactylus sanpelensis
Cyrtodactylus pyinyaungensis

Grismer, Wood, Thura, Zin, Quah, et al., 2017.

Abstract
Twelve new karst-adapted species of the gekkonid genus Cyrtodactylus Gray are described from the Shan Hills and Salween River Basin of Myanmar. Three species occur in rocky habitats along karst ridges and nine species are microendemics restricted to isolated karst caves and towers. This high, localized diversity underscores the archipelago-like nature and microendemism associated with karst habitat-islands. Eleven of the 12 new species are not related to other Indo-Burmese species and form four monophyletic species groups nested within a larger Indo-Chinese clade of Southeast Asian species. Phylogenetic relationships and distributions indicate Cyrtodactylus originated in the Himalayan uplands and dispersed westward through Myanmar with subsequent invasions back into eastern and southern Myanmar. These new species highlight the understudied nature of karst biodiversity in general and karst herpetology in particular. Extensive karst ecosystems throughout the massive Shan Plateau of eastern Myanmar remain largely unexplored and are likely to harbour tens—if not hundreds—of undiscovered species. The unique and complex structure of understudied limestone ecosystems throughout Southeast Asia are habitats in which amphibians and reptiles have specialized, speciated and become endemic. In an age of biodiversity crisis, managing and conserving these ecosystems throughout Southeast Asia should be given greater priority. A key to the species of Cyrtodactylus of Myanmar is provided.


SYSTEMATICS AND TAXONOMY 

Order Squamata Oppel, 1811 
Family Gekkonidae Gray, 1825 
Genus Cyrtodactylus Gray, 1827 

Cyrtodactylus pyinyaungensis sp. nov.  adult female paratype (LSUHC 13150) from the type locality

Cyrtodactylus pyinyaungensis sp. nov. 
Pyinyaung Bent-Toed Gecko
Etymology: The specific epithet, pyinyaungensis (pronounced pin-yong-ensis), is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality.


 The linnwayensis group

The linnwayensis group is a monophyletic group composed of the sister species Cyrtodactylus linnwayensis sp. nov. and C. shwetaungorum sp. nov.

Cyrtodactylus linnwayensis sp. nov. 
Linn-Way Bent-Toed Gecko
Etymology: The specific epithet, linnwayensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to Linn-Way Village near the type locality. 

  Cyrtodactylus shwetaungorum sp. nov.  hatchling (LSUHC 13043) from the type locality.  

Cyrtodactylus shwetaungorum sp. nov. 
Shwetaung Bent-Toed Gecko

Etymology: The specific epithet, shwetaungorum (pronounced shway-tong-orum), is a patronym honouring the Shwe Taung Cement Company Limited for their genuine, proactive efforts to protect the biodiversity encompassed in their mining operations in Myanmar by setting aside areas to be reserved and not quarried. The company is particularly interested in setting aside specific areas to protect C. pyinyaungensis sp. nov. and C. shwetaungorum sp. nov.


The sadansinensis group

 The monophyletic sadansinensis group occurs within the lowland flood plain of the Salween River Basin in Mon State and is composed of Cyrtodactylus sadansinensis sp. nov. and the sister species C. pharbaungensis sp. nov. and C. sanpelensis sp. nov. 

Cyrtodactylus sadansinensis sp. nov. 
Sadan Sin Cave Bent-Toed Gecko
Etymology: The specific epithet, sadansinensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Sadan Sin Cave.

Cyrtodactylus pharbaungensis sp. nov. 
Pharbaung Cave Bent-Toed Gecko
Etymology: The specific epithet, pharbaungensis (pronounced far-bong-ensis), is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Pharbaung Cave.


 Cyrtodactylus sanpelensis sp. nov. from the type locality ... Mawlamyine District, Mon State, Myanmar; adult male paratype LSUHC 12878.

Cyrtodactylus sanpelensis sp. nov.
Sanpel Cave Bent-Toed Gecko
Etymology: The specific epithet, sanpelensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Sanpel Cave.


The sinyineensis group 

The sinyineensis group The monophyletic sinyineensis group is composed of the sister species Cyrtodactylus sinyineensis sp. nov. and C. welpyanensis sp. nov., and the sister species C. dammathetensis sp. nov. and C. aequalis Bauer.

Cyrtodactylus dammathetensis sp. nov. 
Dammathet Cave Bent-Toed Gecko
Etymology: The specific epithet, dammathetensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Dammathet Cave.

Cyrtodactylus sinyineensis sp. nov. 
Sin Yine Cave Bent-Toed Gecko
Etymology: The specific epithet, sinyineensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Sin Yine Cave.

Cyrtodactylus welpyanensis sp. nov. 
Wel Pyan Cave Bent-Toed Gecko
Etymology: The specific epithet, welpyanensis (pronounced way-pee-an-ensis), is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Wel Pyan Cave.


The oldhami group 

 The monophyletic oldhami group is composed of Cyrtodactylus cf. peguensis zebraicus, a polyphyletic C. oldhami, C. thirakhupti, C. payarhtanensis and C. lenya from the Thai-Malay Peninsula just north of the Isthmus of Kra and C. saiyok from southwestern Thailand.


The yathepyanensis group 

The monophyletic yathepyanensis group is composed of Cyrtodactylus yathepyanensis sp. nov. and the sister species C. linnoensis sp. nov. and C. sadanensis sp. nov. from the lowland flood plain of the Salween River Basin of Kayin and Mon and states. 

Cyrtodactylus yathepyanensis sp. nov. 
Yathe Pyan Cave Bent-Toed Gecko
Etymology: The specific epithet, yathepyanensis (pronounced ya-thay-pee-an-ensis), is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Yathe Pyan Cave.

Cyrtodactylus linnoensis sp. nov. 
Linno Cave Bent-Toed Gecko
Etymology: The specific epithet, linnoensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Linno Cave, Kayin State, Myanmar.

Cyrtodactylus sadanensis sp. nov. 
Sadan Cave Bent-Toed Gecko 
Etymology: The specific epithet, sadanensis, is a noun in apposition in reference to the type locality of Sadan Cave, Kayin State, Myanmar.


L. Lee Grismer, Perry L. Wood, Jr., Myint Kyaw Thura, Thaw Zin, Evan S. H. Quah, Matthew L. Murdoch, Marta S. Grismer, Aung Lin, Htet Kyaw and Ngwe Lwin. 2017. Twelve New Species of Cyrtodactylus Gray (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from Isolated Limestone Habitats in east-central and southern Myanmar Demonstrate High Localized Diversity and Unprecedented Microendemism. Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, zlx057.  DOI: 10.1093/zoolinnean/zlx057

Fifteen new gecko species discovered in Myanmar
We just found nineteen new species of gecko in one tiny area newscientist.com/article/2149587-we-just-found-nineteen-new-species-of-gecko-in-one-tiny-area/

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