Friday, June 19, 2015

[Entomology • 2015] Holocacista capensis • A New Leafminer on Grapevine and Rhoicissus (Vitaceae) in South Africa within an expanded Generic Concept of Holocacista (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae)


Figures 1 Holocacista capensis: Male holotype, RMNH.INS.24622 Figures 76–80. Holocacista capensis, life history. 76 Trunk of Vitis with many cocoons with exuviae, De Anker, Paarl, 14 February 2013 77 grapes with fresh cocoons attached, Paarl, 25 January 2013 78 larva in cocoon, going down on silken thread, Paarl, 16 January 2013 79 Leafmines in Rhoicissus digitata, reared in laboratory from adults that originated on Vitis from Wellington, 2014 80 Live adult males, reared from Vitis vinifera, from Paarl 80 EvN2013004, 28 January

Abstract
A grapevine leafminer found recently in table grape orchards and vineyards in the Paarl region (Western Cape, South Africa) is described as Holocacista capensis sp. n. It has also been found on native Rhoicissus digitata and bred on that species in the laboratory. It is closely related to Holocacista salutans (Meyrick, 1921), comb. n. (from Antispila), described from Durban in KwaZulu-Natal, but widespread in southern Africa and a native leafminer of various Vitaceae: Rhoicissus tomentosa, R. digitata, R. tridentata and Cissus cornifolia. Holocacista capensis has been found on Vitis vinifera both in Gauteng and Western Cape, the earliest record being from 1950 in Pretoria. The initial host shift from native Vitaceae to Vitis must have occurred much earlier. The species is sometimes present in high densities, but hitherto no sizeable damage to the crops has been noted. 

The genus Holocacista Walsingham & Durrant, 1909, previously known from the single European grapevine leafminer H. rivillei (Stainton, 1855), is expanded and redescribed and for the first time reported from Africa, East and South-East Asia and Australia. It comprises seven named species and at least 15 unnamed species. The following species are also recombined with Holocacista: transferred from Antispilina: South-African H. varii (Mey, 2011), comb. n., feeding on Pelargonium, transferred from Antispila: the Indian species H. micrarcha (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. and H. pariodelta (Meyrick, 1929), comb. n., both feeding on Lannea coromandelica, and H. selastis (Meyrick, 1926), comb. n. on Psychotria dalzelii. We also remove the following from Antispila: Heliozela anna (Fletcher, 1920), comb. n. and H. argyrozona (Meyrick, 1918), comb. n., whereas the following Indian Vitaceae feeding species are confirmed to belong in Antispila s. str.: Antispila argostoma Meyrick, 1916 and A. aristarcha Meyrick, 1916. Holocacista salutans and H. varii are redescribed and diagnosed against H. capensis and other South African Heliozelidae. DNA barcodes are provided for 13 species of Holocacista.

Keywords: Host shift, leafminers, Vitaceae, viticulture, table grapes, Rhoicissus, Cissus, DNA barcode, genitalia, Holocacista, Antispilina, Antispila, Afrotropics, South Africa, Zimbabwe, India


Figures 1–4. Holocacista species, adult habitus.
13 Holocacista capensis: 1 Male holotype, RMNH.INS.24622 2 Female, Western Cape, Paarl, RMNH.INS.24624 3 Male, Western Cape, Wilderness, reared from Rhoicissus digitata, Genitalia slide EvN4381
4 H. salutans, male, Kwazulu-Natal, Umhlanga Rocks, reared from R. revoilii, Genitalia slide EvN 4383. Scales 1 mm.

Figures 76–82. Holocacista capensis, life history.
76 Trunk of Vitis with many cocoons with exuviae, De Anker, Paarl, 14 February 2013 77 grapes with fresh cocoons attached, Paarl, 25 January 2013 78 larva in cocoon, going down on silken thread, Paarl, 16 January 2013 79 Leafmines in Rhoicissus digitata, reared in laboratory from adults that originated on Vitis from Wellington, 2014 8082 Live adult males, reared from Vitis vinifera, from Paarl 80 EvN2013004, 28 January 81 Windmeul, reared in Leiden, 23 February 2012 82 EvN2013005, 4 February.

Figures 70–75. Holocacista capensis, leafmines on Vitis vinifera, Paarl (7073) and Rhoicissus digitata, Wilderness (74, 75) 70 EvN2013029, 25 January 2013 71 16 January 2013 72 EvN2013029, 25 January 2013 73 2013003, 15 January 2013 74, 75 Vári Ac. No. 1093, 15.iii.1954 (dried leafmines).


Erik van Nieukerken and Henk Geertsema. 2015. A New Leafminer on Grapevine and Rhoicissus (Vitaceae) in South Africa within an expanded Generic Concept of Holocacista (Insecta, Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae). ZooKeys. 507: 41-97. DOI: 10.3897/zookeys.507.9536

New species of leafminer on grapevine in Western Cape came from wild grapes
http://bit.ly/1Qll6FB via @Pensoft @EurekAlertAAAS

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