Sunday, August 9, 2015

[Mammalogy • 2015] The Distribution and Taxonomy of Titi Monkeys (Callicebus) in Central and Southern Peru, with the Description of A New Species; Callicebus urubambensis


Figures 33−35. Three Callicebus urubambensis from different localities. Individuals shown on the left and in the center: left bank of the Río Urubamba, near the Colonia Penal del Sepa, Peru (Photographs by Proyecto Mono Tocón); specimen on the right: Amazonia Lodge, on the left bank of the upper Río Madre de Dios, Peru (Photograph by Kevin Schafer).  Figure 37. Hypothetical distributions of Callicebus urubambensis, C. toppini, C. brunneus, and C. aureipalatii. There is little reliable information on the distribution range of C. brunneus; this map is based on Ferrari et al. (2000) and Porter et al. (2013).

Abstract
Here we report on the results of a study on the distribution and taxonomy of titi monkeys, genus Callicebus, in the central part of Peru. We reinstate Callicebus toppini Thomas, a species described in 1914, but since then neglected by science. It evidently has a wide distribution in southern Peru, western Brazil and northern Bolivia. Based on field observations, analysis of museum specimens, and photographs, we also describe a new species of Callicebus from the Río Urubamba basin, endemic to Peru. Reliable identification of titi monkeys observed in the wild is crucial to avoid confusion and to determine conservation strategies.

Key Words: Callicebus, distribution Peru, Platyrrhini, Primates, taxonomy

Figures 33−35. Three Callicebus urubambensis from different localities. Individuals shown on the left and in the center: left bank of the Río Urubamba, near the Colonia Penal del Sepa, Peru (Photographs by Proyecto Mono Tocón); specimen on the right: Amazonia Lodge, on the left bank of the upper Río Madre de Dios, Peru (Photograph by Kevin Schafer).
Figure 37. Hypothetical distributions of Callicebus urubambensis, C. toppini, C. brunneus, and C. aureipalatii. There is little reliable information on the distribution range of C. brunneus; this map is based on Ferrari et al. (2000) and Porter et al. (2013).

Etymology: This species is named after the Río Urubamba, Peru, where it was discovered.

Vernacular name: The species is locally known as “mono tocón.” We propose the name Urubamba Brown Titi Monkey.

Conservation: The Urubamba Brown Titi is hunted for food, especially where all the larger primates have been exterminated. As it lives near villages, it is an easy prey for hunters and young boys with slingshots. However, considering its relatively large range with low human presence, there is no immediate threat for this species. It is protected in Manu National Park, and is common along the Río Urubamba (see also Aquino et al. 2013).




Jan Vermeer and Julio C. Tello-Alvarado. 2015. The Distribution and Taxonomy of Titi Monkeys (Callicebus) in Central and Southern Peru, with the Description of A New Species. Primate Conservation. 2015 (29). 

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