Tuesday, April 7, 2015

[Herpetology • 2015] Three New Species of Woodlizards (Hoplocercinae, Enyalioides) from northwestern South America


Figure 8. Holotype of Enyalioides sophiarothschildae sp. n. (CORBIDI 647, adult male, SVL = 135 mm). 
Top: dorsolateral view; middle: lateral view of head; bottom: ventral view.
Photograph by Pablo J. Venegas. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.494.8903


Abstract
The discovery of three new species of Enyalioides from the tropical Andes in Ecuador and northern Peru is reported. Enyalioides altotambo sp. n. occurs in northwestern Ecuador and differs from other species of Enyalioides in having dorsal scales that are both smooth and homogeneous in size, a brown iris, and in lacking enlarged, circular and keeled scales on the flanks. Enyalioides anisolepis sp. n. occurs on the Amazonian slopes of the Andes in southern Ecuador and northern Peru and can be distinguished from other species of Enyalioides by its scattered, projecting large scales on the dorsum, flanks, and hind limbs, as well as a well-developed vertebral crest, with the vertebrals on the neck at least three times higher than those between the hind limbs. Enyalioides sophiarothschildae sp. n. is from the Amazonian slopes of the Cordillera Central in northeastern Peru; it differs from other species of Enyalioides in having caudal scales that are relatively homogeneous in size on each caudal segment, a white gular region with a black medial patch and several turquoise scales in males, as well as immaculate white labials and chin. A molecular phylogenetic tree of 18 species of hoplocercines is presented, including the three species described in this paper and E. cofanorum, as well as an updated identification key for species of Hoplocercinae.

Keywords: Andes, Ecuador, Enyalioides, Hoplocercinae, Iguania, lizards, new species, Peru, systematics


Figure 2. Paratype (QCAZ 6671, adult female, SVL = 132 mm) of Enyalioides altotambo.
Figure 1. Holotype (QCAZ 8073, adult male, SVL = 119 mm) of Enyalioides altotambo in dorsal (top) and ventral (bottom) views.
Photographs by Luis A. Coloma.  | doi: 10.3897/zookeys.494.8903

Enyalioides altotambo sp. n.
Proposed standard English name: Alto Tambo woodlizards
Proposed standard Spanish name: lagartijas de palo de Alto Tambo 
synonym: Enyalioides oshaughnessyi (part) Torres-Carvajal et al. 2011: 23.

Distribution: Enyalioides altotambo is only known from two adjacent localities at 620–645 m in the Chocoan rainforests of northwestern Ecuador (Fig. 3). Female paratype QCAZ 6671 was found at 5:30 pm with its head facing up on a tree trunk. 
Etymology: The specific epithet is a noun in apposition and refers to Alto Tambo, Provincia Esmeraldas, Ecuador, a village on the Ibarra-San Lorenzo road where Enyalioides altotambo was discovered.


Figure 5. Holotype of Enyalioides anisolepis sp. n. (QCAZ 12537, adult male, SVL = 130 mm). 
Top: dorsolateral view; middle: ventral view; bottom: lateral view of head.
Photographs by Omar Torres-Carvajal. | doi: 10.3897/zookeys.494.8903
Enyalioides anisolepis sp. n.

Proposed standard English name: rough-scaled woodlizards
Proposed standard Spanish name: lagartijas de palo de escamas ásperas

Distribution and ecology: Enyalioides anisolepis is known to occur between 724– 1742 m on the Amazonian slopes of the Andes in southern Ecuador and northern Peru (Fig. 3). It is known from Provincia Zamora-Chinchipe in extreme southern Ecuador and Región Cajamarca in northern Peru. Most specimens were found sleeping at night (7:00 pm–1:00 am) between 0.2–1.5 m above ground on stems, leaves, and tree roots in primary and secondary forests. Nine of the 15 known specimens were found within 5 m of small streams. 
Etymology. The specific epithet anisolepis is a noun (in apposition) in the nominative singular and derives from the Greek words anisos (= unequal) and lepis (= scale). It refers to the heterogeneous scales on the dorsum, flanks and hind limbs of lizards of this species. 


Figure 8. Holotype of Enyalioides sophiarothschildae sp. n. (CORBIDI 647, adult male, SVL = 135 mm).
Top: dorsolateral view; middle: lateral view of head; bottom: ventral view.
Photograph by Pablo J. Venegas. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.494.8903

Enyalioides sophiarothschildae sp. n. 
Proposed standard English name: Rothschild’s woodlizards
Proposed standard Spanish name: lagartijas de palo de Rothschild


Distribution and ecology: Enyalioides sophiarothschildae is known from the northeastern slopes of the Cordillera Central in Peru between 1600–1700 m (Fig. 3). This species is only known from two adjacent localities, the trail to La Cueva-Añasco Pueblo in the drainage of the Lejía river and El Dorado in the drainage of the Blanco river, both tributaries of the Huallabamba river in the northern part of the Huallaga river basin. This area corresponds to the Selva Alta (400–1000 m) and Yungas (300– 2300 m) ecoregions (Brack 1986; Peñaherrera del Aguila 1989). 
Individuals of Enyalioides sophiarothschildae were found active by day in primary forest. The holotype was found crossing a trail and tried to hide between the roots of a big tree when approached for capture. One of the paratypes climbed up a tree three meters above the ground when approached. The other paratype was found sitting on a big root. 

Etymology: The specific epithet is a noun in the genitive case and is a patronym honoring Sophia Rothschild in recognition of her financial support for the improvement of the herpetological collection of CORBIDI through the BIOPAT Program.


Omar Torres-Carvajal, Pablo J. Venegas and Kevin de Queiroz. 2015. Three New Species of Woodlizards (Hoplocercinae, Enyalioides) from northwestern South America. ZooKeys. 494: 107-132 (06 Apr 2015)


Three New Species of ‘Dwarf Dragon’ Discovered in South America http://www.newsweek.com/three-new-species-dwarf-dragon-discovered-south-america-319875


Resumen
Reportamos el descubrimiento de tres especies nuevas de Enyalioides de los Andes tropicales en Ecuador y norte de Perú. Enyalioides altotambo sp. n., del noroccidente de Ecuador, difiere de otras especies de Enyalioides por poseer escamas dorsales lisas y homogéneas en tamaño, iris café y por carecer de escamas circulares grandes y quilladas en los flancos. Enyalioides anisolepis sp. n. ocurre en las estribaciones amazónicas de los Andes al sur de Ecuador y norte de Perú, y se distingue de otras especies de Enyalioides por poseer escamas grandes y proyectadas dispersas en el dorso, flancos y extremidades posteriores, así como por su cresta vertebral bastante desarrollada, que a nivel del cuello es tres veces más alta que entre las extremidades posteriores. Enyalioides sophiarothschildae sp. n., de las estribaciones amazónicas de la Cordillera Central al norte del Perú, difiere de otras especies de Enyalioides por poseer escamas caudales de tamaño similar en cada segmento caudal, una región gular blanca con una mancha medial negra y escamas turquesa en machos, así como la quijada y labiales de color blanco. También presentamos un árbol filogenético molecular de 18 especies de hoplocercinos, que incluye a las tres especies descritas en este artículo y a E. cofanorum, así como una clave de identificación actualizada para las especies de Hoplocercinae.


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