| Erythrocharax altipinnis live paratype, MZUSP 110999, 25.8 mm SL, |
rio Curuá, tributary of rio Iriri, rio Xingu basin, depicting live color pattern of species.
Erythrocharax altipinnis is described from the Serra do Cachimbo, Pará, Brazil. The new taxon is distinguished from all of the Characidae genera by having the pelvic bones firmly attached through the isquiatic processes; a nearly triangular hiatus in the musculature covering the anterior chamber of the swim bladder between the first and second pleural ribs (pseudotympanum); the pedunculate, notably expanded and distally compressed teeth in both jaws; circumorbital series represented by antorbital and four infraorbital bones with laterosensory canals not enclosed; a single tooth row in the premaxillary with the teeth perfectly aligned and similar in shape and cusp number; the first three branched dorsal-fin rays distinctly elongate in males; a bright red adipose and caudal fins in life; a conspicuous dark midlateral stripe extending from the opercle to the tip of the median caudal-fin rays; and by the absence of a humeral spot. The phylogenetic position of the new taxon is discussed using morphological and molecular datasets, with conflicting results of both approaches discussed. Additionally, a summarized discussion on the current problems in the Characidae taxonomy is presented and the principal biases in the morphological dataset are also discussed.
Erythrocharax, new genus
Type species: Erythrocharax altipinnis, new species, by monotypy and original designation.
Etymology: From the Greek erythrus, meaning red, in reference to the bright red coloration of the adipose and caudal fin in live specimens, plus the suffix -charax, as generally applied for genera of the Characidae.
Erythrocharax altipinnis, new species
Etymology: From the latin alti, meaning elongate, and pinnis meaning fin, in reference to the elongate dorsal-fin rays in males.
Netto-Ferreira, A.L., Birindelli, J.L.O., de Sousa, L.M., Mariguela, T.C. & Oliveira, C. 2013. A New Miniature Characid (Ostariophysi: Characiformes: Characidae), with Phylogenetic Position Inferred from Morphological and Molecular Data. PLoS ONE. 8 (1): e52098. doi: dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0052098